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Image from page 274 of “Railway mechanical engineer” (1916)

Image from page 274 of

Identifier: railwaymechanica96newy
Title: Railway mechanical engineer
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Subjects: Railroad engineering Engineering Railroads Railroad cars
Publisher: completely new York, N.Y. : Simmons-Boardman Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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Text Appearing Before Image:
ions.—1. When were air and vacuum brakes first ap-plied to railroad equipment? 2. To what extent were air and vacuum brakes appliedbefore their use was required by law?—S. B. C. Ansicers.—1. The first pneumatic brake was a vacuumbrake patented by James Nasmyth and Charles !May in 1844.In 1848 Samuel B. Lister patented an air brake similar to thestraight air brake, except that it was designed to be operatedby the guard or brakeman and not by the engineer. TheWestinghouse straight air brake was brought out in 1869 andfirst applied to a Steubenville accommodation on the Pan-handle railroad, today a part of the Pennsylvania System. TheWestinghouse air brake was first applied to a Steubenvilleaccommodation on the Panhandle railroad, today a part of thePennsj-lvania System. The plain automatic brake was in-vented in 1872 and the Smith vacuum brake in the same year. 2. In 1896, 98 per cent of the passenger cars and 29 percent of the freight cars in this country were fitted with brakes. 260

Text Appearing After Image:
Some PuUmaii Dinino; Cars Used in Eno;land Railways Operate Their Sleeping and Parlor Cars:Pullman Cars Mainly of Dining or Buffet Type THE term •Pullman conveys a distinctly differentmeaning in England from what it does in the UnitedStates. An American thinks of a Pullman as pri-marily a sleeping car. sometimes as a parlor or chair car andoccasionally as a dining car. An Englishman does not asso-ciate the term with sleeping or parlor cars as the railwaysthemselves own and operate such cars where there are longruns, as on the northern roads from London to Manchester,Liverpool or Glasgow, the latter of which is about 400 milesaway. There are. however, a number of Pullman dining orbuffet cars in service on a number of roads. The London,Brighton & South Coast, the South Eastern & Chatham andthe Great Eastern have recently received completely new equipmentwhich is to be used mainly on short runs of from 50 to 60miles between London and the coast resorts. These cars are fitted with movable

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