Title: Automotive industries
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Subjects: Automobiles Aeronautics
Publisher: Philadelphia [etc.] Chilton [etc.]
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto
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grees, shown in Fig. 4, with the intake manifoldof Fig. 5. Some improvement is obtained by water jacket-ing the manifold, as shown in Fig. 11, or by having a fairlylong vertical branch, as indicated in Figs. 9 and 10. An-other type of manifold is shown in Fig. 12, where an in-ternal tube balances the two columns of gas and preventscondensation. Old Types Many old type four-cylinder engines still in use have •iq. 14 Fig. 15 der engines shown in Fig. 5, for one of the cylinders ineach group is always more richly supplied than the other.Fig. 17 gives a type of intake manifold suitable for an en-gine with separate cylinders. Firing order should be 2-1-3-4, in accordance with thetheory illustrated in Fig. 8. In this way cylinder (1) canreceive gas of the same richness as cylinder (2), and thesame applies to cylinders 4 and 3. With the lay out shownin Fig. 16 this is impossible. The adoption of block cast cylinders has contributed con-siderably to the improvement of intake manifolds. For-
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June 23, 1921 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIESTHE AUTOMOBILE 1373 (r \A-. =MP Ui merly the heating was secured by aby-pass from the circulating water,with pipes of little diameter whichwere liable to become choked, or withhot muffs from the exhaust, whichgave too much heat and frequentlyfailed to operate satisfactorily. Since the introduction of internalmanifolds surrounded by the circulat-ing water the efficiency of automobileengines has been considerably im-proved. Figs. 18 and 19 show an in-ternal water heated manifold placedexternally to the valves. This shouldbe compared with the more satisfac-tory layout illustrated in Figs. 20, 21,and 22. The manifold in Figs. 20 and21 is designed for a gas velocity at the carbureter mouthof 230 feet per second, of 220 feet per second at the pointb, and 210 feet in the valve ports. It will be noticed thatthe carbureter is placed at the lowest point and the gastakes an upward direction during the whole of its course,so that any particles which may be conde
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